|Years old:||I am 22|
From tocommercials 1—3 have been promoting the product as a method to achieve a better life. The lighter skin tone of women is highly desired when it comes to being a nice bride material Thappa and Malathiwhich has a lot to do with the gender norms of the traditional Indian society. Like van Dijk, the focus of the investigation is based on the context. Now the question arises as to why these commercials are ificant for this critical investigation? The commercials are very explicit.
The sight of an indian woman in the company of a man of another race seems to bring out the worst in her countrymen.
Broad transcription of the English translation for every commercial is in Appendix I. Moreover, some Indian matrimonial advertisements from two majorly circulated English newspapers have also been included in Appendix II to show how the term fair frequently appears to describe attractiveness or desirability in the context of matrimonial newspaper advertisements, which is indicative of how fairness is a must-have quality to conform to the culturally enforced attractiveness standards of contemporary Indian society. The Indian constitution dictates that the democracy be run by the rationale of equality and not by the equation of caste, creed, and religion.
TV stars or models endorsing beauty products are nothing new. Like Fairclough, the methodology and analysis take into consideration the relation between social practices and inherent dominance. Thus, in the colonial era, people with lighter skin tone felt privileged, and people looked up to the lighter skin tone of the rulers, which created the divide based on skin tone.
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Rajesh : para. Since English is one of the official and most commonly used languages in India, the frequent use of English is not surprising to connect with the general masses. As far as the sociocultural context of India is concerned, the astonishing thing is, love for fairness is prevalent in the world and lifestyle of women, both in rural and in urban areas. So, once the dark-skinned protagonists in commercials start using the particular product, life becomes better. These commercials were found after an exhaustive electronic search and were available on YouTube.
Fair and Handsome is the most popular fairness product brand in India and the one that introduced the first skin-lightening product for men in Because the commercials have evolved from in terms of their direct and indirect approaches to promoting the products, they are presented in a chronological manner from to All these advertisements are were available on YouTube during data collection, and the transcriptions of their meaning-translated English version have been provided in Appendix I along with the links at the time of research, in the endnotes.
It is important to mention that this is a research seeking to bring visibility to and unpack the problem that centers around the discourse of colorism in Indian skin-lightening products and their proliferating market.
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These questions will be answered in Section 7. However, it is for women. According to popular beliefs, the very concept of discrimination based on skin color is either nonexistent or extremely mild. Thus, the launch of the product worked as an introduction of a luxury product that would gradually become a part of the day-to-day life for Indian young men. The British and other European rulers were also fond of lighter skin tones, presumably because they thought light skin to be superior.
2 aim of the study
However, in so doing, like any other product, it might have created the problem of stigmatizing darkskin tone itself. Since then it has been ruling the industry. Both versions of life are portrayed in most of the commercials themselves. The found in the study by Mishra are also a reflection of the similar sense. As Mishra also mentions that Indians have great love for fair skin. These products and their mode of advertising have been shaping the notion of attractiveness of Indian men by portraying light skin color as the most fundamental quality of being handsome, attractive, cool, and hence, always desirable and successful.
Since it has to do with lighter skin, it definitely feeds into colorism. The darkskin carries sociocultural baggage.
As mentioned earlier, a descriptive version of every commercial is included in the corresponding appendix section Tables 1—6. But analyzing beauty products for women is beyond the scope of this article. The discursive context shapes and is shaped by the social and cultural processes and calls for the foregrounding of working inequality and power in the process.
Without exaggeration, it appears to be the most important factor.
Since the advertisements are a combination of linguistic and paralinguistic elements and transcribing everything is beyond the scope of this article, the main story and the relevant information i. It is so mild that educated upper-middle-class people do not believe it exists Mishra, : For them, it is a history and may be an undercurrent in the rural areas of India. It could be in terms getting a job, popularity among female members, gaining confidence, getting a promotion, etc.
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Before that, neither the commercials nor the existence of commercially produced skin-lightening products for men could be traced. The prejudice is so deep-rooted that people do not even see the products prosper. As Rajesh : para. However, it is the concept of the commercials that is crucial for a researcher, because the concept of a commercial both influences and is influenced by the societal attitude toward a certain discriminatory act such as colorism.
It used the classical problem-solver technique to promote the product in the market. Mishra : notes that the British recruited indigenous people for the army in colonized India, and people with comparatively light skin received better placement opportunity and were hired more frequently than the nonlight ones. However, this is the history until the wake of the twentieth century. The primary data for this study are six popularly broadcast Hindi TV commercials that are promoting skin-lightening products for men.
According to Thappa and Malathiin India, there is a long history behind the obsession with skin color, owing to caste and culture. Moreover, the sections wherein the English language is originally used in the commercials are italicized in the transcriptions. For now, knowing some information about the evolution of skin-lightening products and their TV commercials in India would be enlightening. The commercials are by one major brand, Fair and Handsome.
Thus, colorism should not flourish anymore. This is a culturally informed sense-for-sense translation Wodakvan Dijk The translation of every commercial is as close to the original as it could be. The methodology is a combination of multimodal analysis, critical discourse analysis, and advertisement analysis. This shows the growth in the demand at an alarming rate. The commercials are by one popular brand, Emami Fair and Handsome.
One more notable thing is that most of these commercials are targeted toward modern, urban population. Ina skin-lightening product for women named Fair and Lovely was launched in India. If the findings are supported, this project can contribute to further research in this area. Google search was also used to locate the online content like publicly available newspaper articles, blogs, web entries, etc.
No one directly wants to talk about it but the love is so apparent that many actions reflect it. The commercials are, thus, relatively straightforward. Colorism, which marginalizes people with darker skin tone and advances the preference for lighter skin tone, is also intertwined with the history of the British colonial era. It still exists and is flourishing in India.
The former category describes commercials that are direct and would overtly appeal for buying the products and may justify reliability, low cost, and benefits, whereas the latter type describes commercials that are indirect and would not overtly ask the viewers for a purchase.
Although the commercials do not overtly specify the socioeconomic class, no character from a lower socioeconomic class seems have found place in any of these commercials. These commercials are mainly in Hindi, but frequent use of English can be observed as well. The majority The participants of this survey were 20—25 years old. All the commercials have been extracted off-line for research purposes. However, the presence of skin-lightening products and their flourishing market in India indicates otherwise.
The frequent telecast of several of such commercials on TV appears to be an every-day phenomenon. These commercials e.
Suggested in this study, the educated urban males, indirectly, still exhibit the preference for a lighter skin tone when it comes to their very social and personal relationship-related domains of life. They have a particular pattern. Moreover, which part of them plays into the notion of colorism? However, the relation between a darker skin tone and the caste hierarchy is not that simple. Now comes the second type of the commercials that have been produced in When it comes to this type, there is a huge shift in terms of the pattern and linguistic usage.
By studying relevant literature and critically studying the chosen TV commercials from tothe aim of this article is to understand how the discourse of colorism is taking place in a set of Indian commercials. While the critical orientation of the methodological framework of the article is informed by the two abovementioned scholars, the goal of the research necessitates incorporating some methodological tools for both advertisement analysis and multimodal analysis.
These advertisements can be said to function and pattern like the following diagram.
After much research and investigation, it can be suggested that the charter issued by the Advertising Standards Council of India ASCI, cited in Pathak may have been the reason of this shift from direct discrimination to a circumvented way of subtler implications of the same color-biased discrimination. Beforethere is no documentation of urban young men of India using any skin-lightening product. This translation endeavor demands a thorough knowledge of the Indian sociocultural situation along with the knowledge of Hindi.
There is hardly any portrayal of rural life, and all the characters and their lifestyle traits in the commercials are urban in nature. The better life is achieved only after using the skin-lightening product.
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In the wake of the twenty-first century, television TV commercials became one of the major ways to advertise skin-lightening products for men in India. Here the data have both kinds. Eventually, by the use of the fairness product, the problem is solved and the men get a lighter skin tone. Therefore, the obsession of achieving a lighter skin tone has become a major life goal for urban men in India.
Language as one of the main components of this practice situates this problem in the domain of critical linguistics. The overall goal of this study is to bring visibility to this subtle and multilayered problem of colorism in Indian society which is being reinforced by the skin-lightening products for men.
The skin-lightening products for men in India and their mode of advertising have been shaping the concept of attractiveness for Indian men by portraying lighter skin tone as the most fundamental quality of being attractive, always desirable, and successful. The target commercials are ificant for their categorical distinction in directness as well as for their nature of storytelling that helps facilitate the discourse of colorism itself.
It also focuses on how norms or ideologies are naturalized in discursive practices. The skin-lighting products for men and the way these are promoted need more attention as far as the issue of discrimination based on skin color is concerned.