Figure 1. The second deals with imagined revenge fantasies e. For each item, participants are asked to indicate whether or not they have experienced any of these traumatic events.
A changing world
Three hypotheses were formulated: 1 Higher feelings of injustice and a more traumatic history should be correlated with higher levels of desire for revenge and more revenge fantasies. Specifically, it tested whether feelings of injustice mediated the associations between the of past traumatic events and the desire for revenge or revenge fantasies.
Twenty-two items from the revenge fantasy inventory for adolescents RFI-J were modified to assess attitudes toward revenge fantasies in adolescents Warncke et al. In this context, recent research shows that retaliatory violence including revenge is gendered Mullins et al.
The mediation model indicated that feelings of injustice mediated the associations between the of traumatic events and the desire for revenge or revenge fantasies. Positive correlations have been reported between the RFI and measures of aggression and physical and psychological complaints.
There were no missing data.
The IEQ measures cognitions associated with unfairness, perceived severity, and the irreparability of loss and blame e. For example, women with higher affective dysregulated temperaments are more likely to exhibit revenge fantasies. Moreover, researchers have suggested that forgiveness may be conditioned by culture, religiosity, and spiritual beliefs Sandage et al. As in the original research, a SPSS Principal Axis Factoring extraction method with VARIMAX rotation was used to identify different content areas around which the fantasies were directed to what extent revenge helps, revenge as a necessary healing process, revenge is destructive.
This subscale has been shown to exhibit positive correlations with offense-specific rumination, negative affectivity and self-deception, and negative correlations with empathy and relational closeness. Men had higher levels of revenge fantasies than women, whereas women tended to perceive revenge as pointless. Revenge fantasies are defined as actual descriptive thoughts on how to get even with the perpetrator Horowitz, ; Haen and Weber, These fantasies may provide the victim with a form of sadistic pleasure and enable closure Haen and Weber, Victims who suffer from feelings of powerlessness and humiliation sometimes comfort themselves with the pseudo-power of revenge fantasies Knoll, ; Seebauer et al.
Given the distinction between the sexes with regard to revenge in the literature, it also examined whether men and women differ in their levels of desire for revenge and revenge fantasies. Thus, the first aim of the current study was to examine whether a history of trauma and feelings of injustice are associated with levels of desire for revenge and fantasies of revenge. The revenge subscale from the transgression-related interpersonal motivations TRIM inventory was used McCullough et al.
The estimations of the mediation model to predict the perception that revenge fantasies are helpful. Empirically, studies have shown that men are likely to be socially rewarded for aggressive, vengeful behavior in cultures where men have privileged access to high-status positions Mullins et al. The greater the desire to preserve the relationship, the greater the tendency to either deny the hurt or forgive the perpetrator Watson et al.
A sex effect was found for the mediation model, which revealed ificant regressed models for women but not for men.
Overall, the literature suggests that the desire for revenge and revenge fantasies serve as a form of narcissistic repair after experiences of harm and transgression while enabling acceptance and redefinition, encouraging progression, and reinforcing ego stability McClelland, ; Seebauer et al. Figure 3.
Revenge fantasies after experiencing traumatic events: sex differences
The level of the desire for revenge also impacts the behavior of the victim toward or in the presence of the perpetrator. The first section asked the participants about their feelings and thoughts about revenge fantasies for past injustice e. Figure 4. The estimations of the mediation model to predict desire for revenge. Specifically, it was hypothesized that women would have lower levels of desire for revenge and destructive fantasies than men, and lesser beliefs in the need for revenge and its contribution to the healing process than men.
Men who are victims of violent action or humiliation also use aggression to retaliate or deter further victimization Mullins et al. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify whether feelings of injustice served as an internal mechanism that elicits the desire for revenge and revenge fantasies using two mediation models see Figures 12.
‘it’s like having an incurable disease’: inside the fight against revenge porn
Dimensions were calculated by computing the mean of the items that comprised the factor. The current study examined the associations between a history of traumatic events and feelings of injustice and levels of desire for revenge-seeking and fantasies of revenge. Then, their translations were compared, disagreements were discussed, and a final version was constructed. The estimations of the mediation model to predict fantasy of revenge. Whereas most people in the Western world do not actually engage in vengeance, many tend to fantasize after being treated unjustly.
Men tend to view violent retaliation as a vital tool for their survival Hamama-Raz et al.
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Composite scores were created for each of the three factors, based on the mean of the items, which had their primary loadings on each factor. However, when the victim knows the perpetrator and has an emotional attachment, the level of revenge is thought to be contingent upon the desire to preserve the relationship with the perpetrator and feelings toward him or her. However, these fantasies are directed against the self in the form of suicidal ideation, planning, or attempts Serafini et al. Participants are asked to rate their level of agreement with each item from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 5.
This can range from attempts at total avoidance to an obsession with the perpetrator and the hurt Grobbink et al. Four factors were obtained: emotional regulation, rejection of revenge, negative emotionality, and readiness to act. Experiences of humiliation, unjust hurt caused by another or anger naturally, elicit the desire to seek revenge and fantasies of revenge.
All the participants ed the online written consent form.
Original research article
The inventory was shown to have adequate to excellent temporal stability Kubany et al. A higher score indicated that thoughts of revenge helped in the healing process.
The presentation of the questionnaire provided information about the goals of the study, a consent form, and a link to the online questionnaire. They are less able to forgive slights and offenses, which thus le to more pronounced traumatic experiences and a greater desire for revenge than in young women Mullins et al. The estimations of the mediation model to predict the perception that revenge fantasies are destructive.
Can revenge sex ever be healthy? we weighed the pros and cons
Several goals are fulfilled by the revenge Orth, Revenge is intended to re-equilibrate the gains and losses caused by an assault. Higher scores indicated a belief that revenge is unnecessary. All measures were independently translated into Hebrew from the English original by two translators, who are experts in the field of children at high risk and are native speakers of Hebrew. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses.
The clinical implications are discussed. The showed positive associations between feelings of injustice and the desire for revenge and revenge fantasies.
In the present study, the items were modified for adults, translated into Hebrew by two native speakers and adapted to Israeli culture, for a total of 17 items from the original first part of the questionnaire and five items from the second. This comes from the belief that the perpetrator should not profit from his or her wrongdoings; many people believe that the perpetrator deserves to be subjected to equal harm to that caused by him or her.
Higher scores indicated a belief that revenge thoughts are destructive. The mean age was In terms of history of trauma, After obtaining ethical approval from the ethics committee for research on human subjects of the Faculty of Welfare and Health Sciences of the University of Haifa, an anonymous online questionnaire via Qualtrics using validated questionnaire was administrated to the participants who were recruited through social media. The desire for revenge is also intended to re-equilibrate power and allow the victim to regain a sense of control over his or her circumstances Salter, Experiences of humiliation, unjust hurt by another or anger naturally elicit the desire to seek revenge Haen and Weber, ; Morrissette, ; Fatfouta and Merkl, This desire is considered to be a universal personal response in all human cultures McClelland, The desire for revenge; namely, to cause the perpetrator to suffer Watson,does not cease until it is recognized and released in one way or another Fatfouta and Merkl, The desire to seek revenge first appears during childhood Haen and Weber, Children as young as nine are capable of retaliatory decision-making.
6 things real people learned from having revenge sex
Modern Western thought considers revenge taboo and encourages forgiveness instead Grobbink et al. Revenge fantasies exist at all ages: children use revenge fantasies to disavow their inability to act and mourn and disguise their feelings of shame Haen and Weber, These stereotypes are preconceived ideas whereby men and women arbitrarily ased characteristics and roles determined and limited by their sex Heilman, ; Eagly and Karau, They prescribe and proscribe how men and women should and should not behave Prentice and Carranza, Western norms for men endorse emotional stoicism, competition, agency, status striving, and toughness Kiselica et al.
They can consider factors such as whether the harm was purposeful, the type of retaliation desired, and the age difference between the perpetrator and the victim Haen and Weber, ; Lillie and Strelan, However, the urge to retaliate for wrongs persists throughout adulthood Bloom, Regardless of whether the victim has an emotional connection to the perpetrator, the level of the desire for revenge depends on the severity of the transgression toward the victim Schumann and Ross, ; Morrissette, ; McCullough et al.