All participants were of Czech origin. In other words, taller men would prefer a partner that was taller than their actual partner, but not one who was taller than themselves. Based on a North American and Latino Local sex dominant sample, it has been suggested that anal sex between homosexual men not only represents activity leading to sexual pleasure, but is also connected to other personality, or interpersonal factors, such as masculinity and sexual power - the same being true for heterosexual individuals .
This resulted in 9 drawings of male couples that varied in their relative height, centred on a couple of equal height see Figure 1. Among sexual minorities, the discrepancy between mate preference and mate choice may be even more pronounced than among heterosexuals because the potential pool of partners is substantially more limited. This latter preference may also be adaptive, as women in couples with a larger than average height difference experience a higher risk of birth complications .
Alternatively, a desired partner may not reciprocate the attraction shown toward them by a particular individual. To assess preferences for stature differences between a participant and his ideal partner i. All participants were recruited via snowball sampling through the use of mailing-lists obtained for our studies, and through advertisements on Facebook. Additionally, rivals may prevent the individual from obtaining the most desired partner.
Moreover, almost half of our sample reported homogamy i.
In this study, we first examined preferences for relative height among non-heterosexual men. Furthermore, when preferences are rather uniform in the population, they are unlikely to be met for most individuals. Height was divided into 2.
Finally, it has been shown that both men and women avoid extreme height differences in their partners: women prefer men not too tall compared to their own height, and men prefer women not too short . Although, on average, women prefer taller over shorter men, while men prefer women of average height, there are also systematic inter-individual differences in height preferences.
Specifically, taller men preferred relatively shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred relatively taller partners compared to themselves. A potential evolutionary rationale for Local sex dominant women prefer taller men is that height acts as cue of male mate quality. The main aim of the current study was to explore height preferences and actual partner height characteristics of homosexual men. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that height may serve as an indicator of competitive ability against rival males .
The largest proportion of men The horizontal line reflects neither submissive nor dominant.
In particular, we examined the influence of Local sex dominant and actual sexual roles i. Participants who were single at the time of the study, but reported having a stable relationship in the past, were asked to indicate the relative height difference between them and their most recent former partner. Having said this, homosexual men also prefer men who are described as typically masculine  ; in particular, they prefer masculine male voices  and faces . In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman.
After applying a Bonferroni correction, all reported findings remained ificant, except one, which had an uncorrected p-value of. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Height correlated positively with both preferred and actual relative height among partners.
Presenting average partner preferences may therefore obscure these distinctive patterns of partner preferences, perhaps reflecting diverse homosexual sub-groups. Data were collected through an online questionnaire using Qualtrics Qualtrics Inc. At the start of the survey, the participants gave their informed consent via an online form. It should also be noted that these height preferences seem restricted to Western populations . Participants were asked to select the drawing that depicted the preferred relative height difference between them and their ideal partner, and were subsequently asked to select the drawing that depicted the actual relative height difference between them and their actual partner.
Human mate preferences and mate choice are known to be substantially influenced by physical characteristics of potential or actual mates . Some studies have even reported that taller men have higher reproductive success although a recent, comprehensive review suggests that, among Western populations, it is men of average height that produce the most offspring .
Our indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. Male homosexual partner preferences cannot simply be reduced to a heterosexual female pattern of preferences, however, because almost a quarter of our homosexual sample preferred partners shorter than themselves a pattern more similar to that observed in heterosexual men.
Preferred and actual partner characteristics may differ for several reasons because mate selection process usually involves various trade-offs. Thus, in addition to potential health and longevity benefits, women may prefer taller men because they are more likely to be dominant and hold higher social status. Similar to heterosexual men, homosexual men value physical attractiveness in their potential partners more than heterosexual women and they prefer potential partners who are younger than themselves . A substantial proportion of men for the association between relative height among partners and preferred sex role within a relationship were very similar to those concerning the preferred dominance role.
Given that height has been shown to relate strongly to dominance cues, we predicted this would be related to the dominance relationship between partners, with those expressing a preference to be more dominant preferring shorter partners relative to those who prefer to be submissive. Preferences for sex-typical traits i. Such self-similarity preferences are also observed in actual pair formation: positive assortative mating with respect to height is a widespread phenomenon  — .
Figure 3 shows that very tall men preferred to be slightly taller than their partner, whereas average height and short men preferred to be slightly shorter than their ideal partner. Although heterosexual preferences and choice for partner height have received considerable attention, little is known about these among homosexual individuals. Height may also serve as Local sex dominant cue to male dominance for review, see Buunk et al. Similarly, over one third of our sample showed a preference for equal roles during a sexual encounter i.
Female preferences for male height may thus be interpreted as a preference for health and longevity in a mate. The horizontal line reflects neither passive nor active role during intercourse.
Indeed, it has been shown that, on average, taller men are healthier  —  and live longer  than shorter men. Participants were asked if they had a stable male sexual partner at the time of the study. This effect was more pronounced, however, among men who were much taller than their partners Figure 2.
This required a mouse-click to confirm their willingness to take part, and enabled them to proceed to the survey. The horizontal line reflects no partner height difference. Each participant reported on his height in cm. Interestingly, we found a discrepancy between what men preferred, and the actual heights of their partners Although tall men preferred to be taller than their partners and short men preferred to be shorter than their partners, in general, men in our sample expressed a preference for smaller partner height Local sex dominant than they actually experienced; a finding that was most pronounced in tall men.
More precisely, we hypothesized that men who prefer to be rather dominant towards a potential partner will prefer shorter partners, while men preferring rather a submissive role in their relationships will show preferences for taller men, and a similar pattern was also expected to appear in actual same-sex couples. research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals.
However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. We showed that most men prefer a partner taller than themselves, but not too much taller. For instance, the fact that half of the men in our sample preferred a taller partner while only one quarter preferred a shorter partner, must inevitably lead to a compromise, and the acceptance of partners of non-preferred heights by some men. Thus, it seems that the effect of gender on variation in partner preference is stronger than the effect of sexual orientation .
Most notably, taller men expressed a preference for a smaller height differences than they actually experienced Figure 3. In other words, most Local sex dominant would have preferred to be less tall or less short relative to their partner Figure 2. In addition to examining preferences for partner height, we also examined how well these preferences aligned with actual relative height differences among partners.
Rather, it seems that men with more gender typical traits here men of taller stature show more male-like preferences for shorter partners, while shorter men show more female-like preferences for taller partners. In general, according to interpersonal theory, the dominance dimension is one of the two primary dimensions of interpersonal behavior in addition to the Local sex dominant dimension . This suggests that a ificant proportion of non-heterosexual men in our sample showed preferences for self-similarity in the studied characteristics.
The funders had no role in study de, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. This is in line with research showing a discrepancy between mate choice preferences, and actual mate choice .
We also examined whether preferences were influenced by the preferred role adopted during sexual intercourse and the preferred dominance role in a relationship. Variation in height differences was set up in the following fashion: the size of the target figure representing the respondent was increased or decreased by 0. Given that we ran several correlation analyses, we have a greater probability of making a Type 1 error i.
This pattern has been repeatedly documented in studies of heterosexual mate preferences and mate-choice, showing that couples resemble each other in basic demographic, personality, and physical characteristics .
studies report that homosexual men show a male-typical mating psychology, including an interest in casual sex and sexually explicit visual material as well as showing male-typical mate retention behavior .
We report p-values without corrections. Visual examination of Figure 2 shows that, on average, men with partners of the same height would have preferred to be shorter than their partners, whereas men who were either much taller or much shorter than their actual partners expressed a preference for a smaller height difference Figure 2. We used Pearson correlations to examine the associations between self-reported height and preferred and actual relative height among partners the data were normally distributed. research has repeatedly shown that sexually dimorphic traits positively affect mate choice criteria .
Complementarity of dominant and subordinate behavior also serves to regulate aggression and conflict and facilitates cohesion in social group encounters including dy .
In total, There were missing values on relationship status for twenty-two men. All analyses were performed using SPSS As shown in Table 1 and Figure 2 The horizontal line reflects a preference for a partner of similar height. There are, however, striking individual differences in preferences for facial masculinity in homosexual men: single homosexual men prefer more masculine male faces than those in a relationship and homosexual men who report higher levels of sexual desire also prefer more masculine male faces  but see .
Furthermore, taller men and shorter women tend to prefer larger partner height differences  than those who are shorter, which is hypothesised to increase the pool of potential partners available to such individuals . This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Specifically, it has been shown that men who exhibit a passive role in sexual intercourse are perceived as more feminine, whereas the opposite is true Local sex dominant men exhibiting the active role. Our are thus in agreement with Pawlowski who argued that individuals adjust their height preferences according to their own stature, possibly as a way to increase the pool of their potential partners.
The data on variation in male height was based on a representative sample of Czech adult men .
Moreover, people stereotypically judge tall men as more dominant and assertive . There is some evidence to suggest that the increased attractiveness of taller men extends from the laboratory into more naturalistic settings, as taller men are more successful during speed-dating have partners who are judged as more attractive and report a higher of sexual partners .
In general, these studies reveal that, on average, tall men Local sex dominant average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the woman is shorter than the man  —  ; this is tempered, however, by recent evidence suggesting that the latter preference is stronger in women than in men .
Human stature seems to be one such indicator: on average, men are taller than women and height plays an important role in both mate preferences reviewed in Courtiol et al. Only measures relevant to this study are reported below.